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CRA160 -- Clifford E. Minton Papers


3.25 Linear Feet
December 1984
Revised February 1998
Revised January 2003


Mr. Clifford E. Minton, of Gary, Indiana, donated the Clifford E. Minton Papers to the Calumet Regional Archives on November 21, 1983.

Property rights in the collection are held by the Calumet Regional Archives; literary rights are dedicated to the public. There are no restrictions on access to the collection.

Linear feet of shelf space: 3.25 linear feet
Number of containers: 5 boxes
Processed by: Stephen McShane
Date: December, 1984

Scope and Content

These records document the activities and accomplishments of Clifford E. Minton from 1937 to 1984. Mr. Minton served as the Executive Director of the Gary Urban League for sixteen years (1949-1965). In addition, his career included directorships of the Little Rock and Cleveland Urban Leagues as well as consultant posts with the federal government. The collection traces also the history of the Gary Urban League during Mr. Minton's tenure as Executive Director.

Several record series constitute the collection, including addresses / speeches, correspondence / memoranda, reports, newsclippings, and photographs relating to the Gary Urban League; separate series of similar materials have been created for papers pertaining to the Cleveland and Little Rock organizations.

The addresses and speeches of Mr. Minton (1937-1967) offer insight into his views on topics such as housing, economic opportunity, education, health, crime, and recreation. The series contains a variety of titles: "The Negro Viewpoint in the Civil Rights Struggle", "Housing and Race", "Social and Economic Costs of Racial Discrimination", "Influence of Women on Society" and many others. Similarly, Correspondence and memoranda (1950-1965) detail Mr. Minton's and the Gary Urban League's positions on school segregation, urban renewal (particularly in the Pulaski and Tri-City housing projects), job discrimination in an area bank and department stores, and racial discrimination in the Gary YMCA, Marquette Park and Beach, and in other social and economic areas in the city. Correspondence generated by Clifford Minton, Gary Urban League presidents, local business leaders and public officials (such as Ray Madden, Homer Capehart, and Gary Mayors Peter Mandich and A. Martin Katz), other Urban League affiliates, national leaders, and the National Urban League (including Whitney Young and Lester Granger) constitute this series, documenting not only the above topics but also providing information of planning, strategy, and goals of the Gary Urban League to improve race relations. In addition, the series comprises a number of letters congratulating Mr. Minton for various reports and speeches he had researched and written during his tenure with the Gary Urban League.

Complementing the speeches and the correspondence / memoranda series, a group of Gary Urban League annual reports, manuals, and special studies contain statistics and summaries of the League's accomplishments and plans to improve the social and economic status of minorities and blacks in the city. These reports deal with neighborhood planning, intergroup relations, and the influence of communism among Gary's black population. Finally a comprehensive series of newsclippings (1956-1975) supplements the above records and details the views of the local press regarding race relations.

Researchers should note that while the Little Rock and Cleveland record series embrace types of materials similar to the Gary Urban League portion of the collection, theses series describe the difficult circumstances in race relations particular to those cities and also trace Mr. Minton's growth and development as an administrator concerned with relieving racial tension in the 1930's and 1940's.

A useful source for the study of some of the most crucial periods of racial tension in Gary and elsewhere, the Clifford E. Minton Papers offer valuable information on the history of the Gary Urban League as well as the viewpoints, opinions, methods, and actions of Mr. Minton as he sought to ensure racial and economic equality for all citizens in an urban environment. Researchers should note that detailed historical information on Clifford E. Minton is located in Box 1, File Folder 1. For further information, researchers may wish to consult additional collections in the Calumet Regional Archives, including the Reverend L.K. Jackson Papers (CRA 071), the Jeannette Strong Papers (CRA 079), the Laura Passmore Papers (CRA 123), the Gladys Lucille Comer Papers (CRA 176), and the Thelma Love Majors Papers (CRA 181).

Historical Sketch

Born on July 24, 1911, in Des Arc, Arkansas as the elder son of Frank and Jessie Minton, Clifford E. Minton eventually achieved a record of social service spanning six decades. As a youth, he attended schools in Des Arc as well as Gibbs Elementary and Philander Smith High School in Little Rock. While earning a B.A. in social studies at Philander Smith College in Little Rock, Mr. Minton held various jobs which exposed him to the social and economic problems of blacks in both urban and rural areas of the United States, problems which he would later attempt to alleviate in his lifetime. His later formal education included graduate work at Fisk, American and Indiana Universities, and he earned an M.A. from Western Reserve University in Cleveland. Eventually Mr. Minton received training and certification from the National Academy of Social Workers (community organization specialization), the National Vocational Guidance Association, and the American Personnel and Guidance association, and he earned a certificate as a master investigator while directing a staff of federal professional investigators for the Public Health Service, H.E.W. in the six state Midwest region.

Upon completing his undergraduate work, Mr. Minton commenced a career filled with civic activity and community service by serving as an assistant draftsman and participating in educational and recreational programs of the Soil Conservation Service of the Civilian Conservation Corps at Charlotte, Arkansas. In 1937, he became the principal of Northview Junior High School, Morrilton, Arkansas and later moved on to head the Hillside School in North Little Rock. At Hillside, he developed a summer recreation program, established a community center, and entered into a number of social and civic activities which led him to the Urban League of Greater Little Rock in 1939. Also, he met and married Alma Hawkins, a Little Rock native and teacher in the public schools.

As the executive secretary of the Urban League of Greater Little Rock, Mr. Minton achieved a number of successes in promoting interracial harmony and improving socioeconomic status of the black community. For example, he obtained employment for blacks at Camp Joseph T. Robinson as well as the Arkansas Ordinance Plant, dealt with discrimination in local labor unions and the police department, and generated a study of social and economic conditions among blacks in Little Rock which initiated programs to improve housing, health care, and recreation. A local newspaper commented that "The Urban League of Greater Little Rock has made remarkable progress during the years of Mr. Minton's administration; it has served community welfare needs which would have been unmet and perhaps untouched otherwise." During the Second World War, Mr. Minton was granted a two year leave of absence to serve as a military welfare representative with the American Red Cross in North Africa and Italy.

In 1946, Mr. Minton accepted a post as Director of the department of Industrial Relations in the Cleveland Urban League. In Cleveland, he continued to exhibit exceptional ability in dealing with discrimination and easing racial tension, particularly in employment of blacks in local outlets of National bakery companies, white collar and professional jobs in public utilities, including the telephone, electric, and gas industries. As with his earlier work in Little Rock, Mr. Minton received commendations from Lester Granger, Executive Director, National Urban League for directing the highest ranked Urban League affiliate Job and Economic Development program in the nation. Probably the most fruitful period in his career, however, began with his assumption of the Executive Directorship of the Gary Urban League in 1949.

During his sixteen year tenure with the Gary Urban League, Mr. Minton broadened community participation and support of the League, expanded funding and operations, and developed a thorough program of research into and education about the problems of Gary's black community regarding housing, employment, and the problems of Gary's black community regarding housing, employment, and recreation in a city noted for instances of racial discrimination. The following brief list details some accomplishments of the Gary Urban League under Mr. Minton's guidance: organization of the Gary Urban League Advisory Council to broaden the base of support; increased staff and budget; activation and growth of the Gary Urban League's Neighborhood Improvement and Civic Education Clubs; job placement, especially "pilot placement"; integration of the Gary hospitals and YMCA; achievement of recognition that Marquette Park and Beach were open to all races; recommendations to housing authorities of better operation; and education about interracial relationships.

In several instances, the Gary Urban League caused changes to occur among some of Gary's most long-established entities. For example, after many years of negotiation, the league recruited several black technicians and office workers for positions beyond the laboring classifications at U.S. Steel's Gary Works in the 1950's. At the Post-Tribune, publisher H.B. Snyder hired the first full-time black professionally trained and experienced news reporter, with the encouragement and assistance of the Gary Urban League. In the retail trade, the League persuaded local Sears, Penney's, and other department stores to employ black sales and clerical workers for the first time. Finally, the Gary Urban League promoted the entrance of black officials into the Gary school system at supervisory and administrative levels during the 1950's and participated in the hiring of Dr. A. Blankenship as the superintendent of schools, along with Dr. Walter Riley, and elementary school principal, who became the first black city-wide supervisor. All of these instances served as milestones in Mr. Minton's efforts to promote better socioeconomic conditions for all residents of the city. As a result of these successes, the Gary Urban League became increasingly effective in linking "community leaders of both racial groups with practical community problems involving race relations, for constructive planning and service."

In 1965, after twenty-seven years of service with Urban League affiliates, Mr. Minton entered into a variety of positions in the federal government, beginning as a field representative for the U.S. Office of Education. He represented the U.S. Commissioner of Education by contributing to policy-making while overseeing five state departments of education. He later assumed the post of Regional Program Director, Office of Equal Health Opportunity, U.S. Public Health Service, DHEW, where he administered a multi-state program to investigate civil rights, desegregation, and equal opportunity in hospitals and nursing homes. In addition, Mr. Minton served as the Regional Contract Compliance Branch Chief for six Midwest states, reviewing Affirmative Action compliance of major universities in Indiana, Illinois, Ohio, Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin. Acting also as a consultant, Mr. Minton contributed to the President's Committee on Manpower and the U.S. Regional Office of Economic Opportunity.

In the words of Clifford E. Minton. "The Urban League and my civil rights work with the federal government were labors of love..." His working life however, encompassed much more activity, including private consultations on personnel administration and labor relations, real estate, speech writing and public relations promotions, and securities investments. Because of these endeavors, Mr. Minton enjoyed a career filled with world travel (all continents except Australia) and contributed generously to special Urban League projects, Philander Smith College, the NAACP, Alpha Phi Alpha, United Negro College Fund, the ACLU, and Common Cause. He also found time to contribute to two landmark publications, An American Dilemma: The Negro Problem and Modern Democracy (1944), and the report of President Lyndon Johnson's National Commission on Civil Disorders (known as the Kerner Report, 1968).

Throughout his career, Mr. Minton developed relationships with a number of prominent black and white leaders. In 1939, he worked with future Supreme Court Justice Thurgood Marshall on black teacher salary equality lawsuits in Little Rock. He corresponded with and received the assistance of Drs. Robert C. Weaver and Mary McLeod Bethune, the two top black advisors in the Franklin Roosevelt Administration: they were instrumental in aiding Mr. Minton's effort to secure black employment in skilled and closed shop union craft jobs at Little Rock's Camp Robinson (This breakthrough in job mobility was particularly significant, since it led to removal of barriers to skilled occupations for blacks at U.S. Army camps nationwide). Brigadier General Benjamin O. Davis, Sr., the U.S. Army's first black general, investigated the mistreatment of black soldiers in Little Rock during the Second World War. Other Well-Known acquaintances included Winthrop Rockefeller and, of course, Lester Granger and Whitney Young of the National Urban League.

In addition to his career in education, the Urban League, and government, Clifford E. Minton pursued an enthusiastic course in community organizations, such as the Gary School Advisory Board, the Lake County Advisory Committee on Economic Opportunity, the Lake County Advisory Committee on Aid to Dependent Children, the Mayor's Advisory Committee on Human Relations (Gary), and the Lake County Children's Home Advisory Board. Also, he organized a number of influential community organizations, such as the Gary Chapter of the Frontiers International Service Club in 1953 and served as its president and as a member of the international board of directors. The Midtown Citizen's Committee, a group comprising a cross-section of Gary leaders, utilized Mr. Minton's expertise to apply confrontal tactic in community controversies during the late 1950's and 1960's. In 1962, he interpreted the need and encouraged and provided the Gary Chamber of Commerce technical assistance on organizing a viable Human Relations Committee. Regarding his community leadership, Mr. Minton commented, "Some of Minton's most valuable work was done, operating from his Urban League base but not wearing Urban League Coat." Recently, Mr. Minton has served on the Gary Board of Zoning and Appeals--Gary Redevelopment Commission. His views of Hatcher Administration had changed by 1984, however, and he left the Commission (see Box 1, file folder 24). Among the many honors awarded to Mr. Minton for his contributions were the B'Nai B'Rith Citizen of the Year, the Presidential Meritorious Service Citation, and citations from the Gary School Board and the Gary Chamber of Commerce.

From Little Rock to Gary and beyond, Clifford E. Minton aimed to fulfill one major, primary objective: to improve the economic and social condition of less fortunate groups in American Society while easing intergroup tensions through consistent educational and service programs for his particular communities. Through six decades of research, publication, lectures, planning, programming, persistence, diplomacy, and dedication, Clifford E. Minton worked towards achieving the above goal as he sought to create and maintain equal social and economic opportunity for all people during some of the most crucial years of civil rights activity in the United States.

Box File Description
1 1 Historical Information, Clifford E. Minton, (1949-1965), 1982-1985
2 Address, Clifford E. Minton, "Indiana's Past, Present, Future", 1956
3-7 Addresses / Speeches, Clifford E. Minton, (1937-1968), 1974
8 Addresses / Speeches, Before the Gary Urban League, (1951-1964)
9 Clifford E. Minton, "The Urban League of Gary, 1945-1963"
10-11 News Articles, Clifford E. Minton, 1963, 1982

Series: Correspondence / Memoranda
Box File Description
1 12 Correspondence / Reports, Marquette Park and Beach - Racial Discrimination and Segregation in Tax-Supported, City Operated Public Recreational Facilities, 1953, 1984
13 Correspondence, Survey, and Racial Study, Gary Public Schools, (1950-1959), 1965
14 Correspondence and Reports, Frontiers Club of Gary and E. Chicago, (1953-1957)
15 Correspondence, John Vohr - U.S. Steel, 1955-1956
16 Correspondence, Community Services Dept., 1957-1960
17 Correspondence, Midtown Citizens Committee, 1957-1960
18 Correspondence / Memoranda, Gary Urban League Board and staff Responsibilities, 1963-1965
19 Correspondence / Memoranda, Indiana State Employment Service, 1965
20 Congratulatory Letter to Richard Hatcher, 1967
21 Correspondence, Clifford Minton's Appointment
22 Correspondence, Lake County Department of Public Welfare, (1972-1977), 1984
23 Correspondence / Memoranda, Program Resources Management, St. Joseph's Calumet College, 1972-73
24 Correspondence, Critique of Gary, 1984
25 Correspondence, Gary Hall of Fame, 1987
1 26-35 Correspondence, General, (1950-1965); 1986-1987
36 Interpretive Memoranda: Commission on Race Relations; community situation, (1950-57)
37 Memoranda, Gary Urban League and Gary YMCA, 1951-1954
2 1 Inter-office Memoranda, Executive Director, (1954-1961)
2 Memoranda, Hate Attacks Against the Urban League, 1955-56
3 Memoranda, Orientation Program for Negro Newcomers to Lake County, 1956-1958
4 Memorandum, Recommendation to Gary Chamber of Commerce Re: Human Relations Committee, 1962
5 Memoranda, Rev. Robert Lewis, Gary Urban League, 1963
6 Memoranda / Statements, Gary Redevelopment Commission, 1964
7 Memoranda, General, (1956-1965)
8 Annual Reports, Gary Urban League, Activities, 1963-1965
9-10 Annual Reports, Gary Urban League, 1950-1963
10-11 Gary Urban League Prospectuses, 1950, 1959
3 1 Program Prospectuses, 1960
2 Gary Urban League Board of Directors, 1958-1959, 1964-1966

Series: Reports
Box File Description
3 3 A Study of the Social and Economic Conditions of the Negro Population in Gary, 1944
4 Report of Health Consultant for Gary, Community Relations Project, 1944
5 Report to Gary Council of Social Agencies, 1945
6 "Did You ever See a Dream Growing?", 1946
7 Gary Urban League Manual of Personnel Practices, 1950
8 Gary Urban League Annual Dinner Materials, 1951-1959
9 Block Unit Bulletin, Gary Urban League, 1951-1954
10 Directory, Gary Community Welfare Council, 1952-1953, 1957-1958
11 Gary Urban League Effectiveness and Communist Influence Among Negroes in Gary, 1953
13 Summary, Negro Employment Status, Gary, 1954
14 Gary Urban League Housing, Race Relations and Neighborhood Planning, 1955
15 Gary Urban League Research Plans, Minority Groups Study, 1955
16 The Social and Economic Conditions in Three Minority Groups in Gary 1955
17 Membership List, Mid-Town Businessmen's Association, 1955-1956
3 18 Gary ANSELM Forum, Membership, 1956
19 Mailing List, Gary Common Council, 1956
20 Membership List, Indiana General Assembly, 1956
21 Study of Negro Churches, Gary, 1956
22 Negro Republican Precinct Committeemen, 1956
23 Radio Stations, Northwest Indiana, 1956
24 Gary Urban League Neighborhood Improvement Club, 1956-1958
25 Resource Materials, Urban League and Intergroup Relations, 1956-1957
26 Gary Businesses, Mailing List, 1957
27 Gary Newspapers, Mailing List, 1957
28 Gary Community Chest, 1957-1958
29 Gary Civic-Social-Religious Organizations, 1957
30 Gary Officials, 1958
31 Scrapbook, Gary Urban League Annual Dinner, Winthrop Rockefeller, Speaker, 1958
3 32 Midtown Citizen's Committee, 1958
33 Gary Urban League Clerical Workshop, 1959
34 The White Sentinel, 1959
35 Gary Chamber of Commerce, 1959-1962
36 Gary Urban League Guide to Block and Neighborhood Organization for Community Improvement and Conservation, ca. 1960
37 Gary Urban League Agency Directory and Mailing List, 1962
38 Office Procedural Manual, Gary Urban League, 1962
39 Gary Midtown Churches, 1963
40 Directory of Organizations, 1963
41 Westbrook Apartments, 1964
42 Leadership Development Guide, Gary Urban League, 1965
43 St. Augustine Episcopal Church, 1968
44 Gary Diocese Churches, n.d.
45 Gary Urban League "Cues for Careers", n.d.
3 46-55 Newsclippings, Gary Urban League and Clifford E. Minton, 1949-1955
56 Newsclippings, Black National Convention, Gary, 1972

Series: National Urban League
Box File Description
3 57-60 The Secretariat, 1941, 1943
61 Article, "The Answer to the Negro Problem," 1949
62 40th Anniversary Yearbook, National Urban League, 1950
63 Address, Lester Granger, National Urban League, "Controversy and Cooperation in the Years Ahead," 1955
64 Directory, National Urban League, 1957
65 50th Anniversary Yearbook, National Urban League, 1960
66 Report, The American Negroes' Purchasing Power, 1948
4 1 Summary, National Urban League Golden Anniversary, 1910-1960
2 "The City and the Negro", 1962
3 "Double Jeopardy...The Older Negro in America Today," 1964
4 "Poverty Reexamined: Old Problems, New Challenges," 1964
5 Pamphlet, "Urban League Means Equal Opportunity", n.d.

Series: Little Rock Urban League
Box File Description
4 6 History of Urban League of Greater Little Rock, 1937-1943, 1946, 1987
7 Correspondence, Committee Service Invitations, 1941-1942
8 Correspondence, Congratulating Clifford Minton for Service with Little Rock Urban League and Red Cross, 1946, 1987
9 Article, American National Red Cross Overseas Service Certificate, 1946
10 Memoranda, Little Rock Urban League Budget and Program, 1941-42
11 Annual Reports, Little Rock Urban League, 1939-1942; 1944-1945
12-16 Monthly Reports, Little Rock Urban League, 1940-1943, 1946
17 Struggle for Employment of Negro Carpenters and Other Skilled Workers at Camp Robinson, Little Rock, 1940-43
18 Wages Offered Domestic Service Workers in Little Rock, 1940
19 Homicides Among Negroes/Employment of Negro Policemen, Little Rock Urban League, 1940
20 Labor Union Discrimination of Negro Carpenters, 1941
21 Manual of Office Procedures for In-Service Training, Little Rock Urban League, 1941
22 Racial Discrimination in Segregated Federal Facilities, (CCC); Request for Racial Equality
23 Survey Summaries on the Social Economic Conditions of Negroes in Little Rock, Clifford E. Minton, 1941
4 24 Recreation Facilities for Negroes - Recommendation to Mayor, 1941
25 Arkansas Ordnance Plant - Overcoming Resistance to Employing Negroes, 1942
26 Board of Directors Manual, Little Rock Urban League, 1942-43
27 Facts About Negro Tenant Farmers in Arkansas, 1942
28 Commission on Civilian Defense, National Urban League, and Little Rock Civilian Defense, 1942
29 The Negro - Some Community Problems in Five Areas Selected for Study in Little Rock, Clifford E. Minton, 1942
30 Violence and Mistreatment of Negro Soldiers, Camp Robinson, N. Little Rock, 1942
31 Negro Health in Greater Little Rock, 1943
32 Promotions and Projects for YMCA, Little Rock Urban League, 1943
33 Racial Stress in WW II, Little Rock Urban League, 1943
34 Suggestions to Governor of Arkansas Regarding Child Welfare, 1943
35 News Articles, Clifford E. Minton, Arkansas Democrat, Little Rock, 1941-1943
5 1 Newsclippings, Little Rock Urban League, 1940-1943

Series: Cleveland Urban League
Box File Description
5 2 Cleveland Urban League Breaks Utility Job Bias, 1947
3 Cleveland Urban League Organization of Industrial Relations and Vocational Services Depts., 1947
4 Racial Barrier Broken - Cleveland Bakery Jobs, 1947-1948
5 Department Activities, Industrial Relations, Cleveland Urban League, 1948
6 "Standout in Public Service - Good Neighbor" (about Clifford E. Minton) , 1948
7 Summary Report, Cleveland Urban League Dept. of Industrial Relations, Clifford E. Minton, 1948
8 "Facts About the Integration of Negroes in Department Stores", Clifford E. Minton, 1948
9 Ohio Bell Telephone Co. Ends Employment Bias, 1948
10 Cleveland Urban League and Chamber of Commerce Cooperative Employment Practices Plan, 1949
11 "Report on Negro Workers and Employment Trends in Cleveland", Clifford E. Minton, 1949

Series: Federal Government / National Organization Service
Box File Description
5 12 Correspondence, American National Red Cross, Military Welfare Representative, Italy, 1943-45
13 Clifford E. Minton's "Mob Connection," Italy, 1944
14 Correspondence, U.S. Office of Economic Opportunity, 1965
15 Memoranda, Regional Civil Rights Office, U.S. Public Health Service, 1966-1967
16 Memoranda, U.S. Office of Education, Regional Field Representative, 1965-1966
17 Reports, President's Committee on Manpower, Chicago Team, 1966
18-20 Contract Compliance Review Reports, 1969

Box Description
7 Columns, Clifford E. Minton, INFO, 1986

Preliminary Inventory - Addition of 2003
Box Description
8 Correspondence and related materials, Orval Kincaid and other labor leaders, 1953-
Correspondence and related materials, John Vohr of US Steel / H.B. Snyder, 1955
Negro employment in Gary, 1964
H. Theo Tatum, 1964
Calumet Township / US Steel, 1986-1987
Indiana State Employment Service, 1965
US Steel employment, 1964
FHA / P.N. Brownstein, 1965
Gary real estate / housing, 1965, 1985
Negro viewpoints on civil rights, 1964
8 Metrolake, 1986-
Gary Urban League prospectus
Correspondence, Little Rock, 1937-1946
Letters complimenting Clifford Minton, Little Rock and Red Cross, 1943, 1946
Negro skilled workers employment, 1940
Correspondence, various, e.g. War Department, National Urban League, etc.
Segregation of soldiers, WW II
Exported racism
Little Rock Urban League 50th anniversary; forced out of Little Rock, returned in 1987
Gary Urban League / Gary Chamber of Commerce Human Relations Project
8 GUL (Gary Urban League) honoring black pioneers in jobs
GUL miscellaneous
Cleveland, Ohio, miscellaneous
9 Binders, (2), American Red Cross, 1943-1945
Binder, Little Rock Urban League, 1943-1946
LRUL (Little Rock Urban League), 1941-1943
Marquette Park beach
South American trip, 1962
Minton honored by Urban League of Arkansas, 50th anniversary celebration, 1987
U.S. Government, 1965-1969, 1987
Civic leaders in Arkansas, 1941
Book, The Long Shadow of Little Rock: A Memoir, by Daisy Bates, 1962
10 Scrapbooks, Clifford E. Minton information

Sound Recordings
Sound Recordings, (2), Interview with Clifford E. Minton, 1982 (located in CRA Oral History Collection)
Sound Recording, (1), Meeting between Gary Hall of Fame Board and Minton, 1987 (located in CRA Oral History Collection)

Subject Tracings

  • A.F.L.
  • African Americans -- History
  • Board of Zoning Appeals
  • Carpenters
  • Chamber of Commerce--Gary
  • Churches--Gary
  • Education
  • Gary
  • Gary Redevelopment Commission
  • Granger, Lester
  • Housing
  • Integration
  • Joyner, Reverend
  • Labor
  • Lake County Children's Home
  • Lake County Department of Public Welfare
  • Marquette Park and Beach Integration
  • Minton, Clifford E.
  • National Urban League
  • Race Relations
  • Racial Discrimination
  • Racism
  • Schools--Gary
  • Segregation
  • United States Steel Corporation
  • Urban League - Gary, Cleveland, Little Rock